Picture: A mute LED on a modern, digital audio mixer, by Mika Baumeister, license Unsplash

Chavismo and self-censorship

In their new study, Paromita Pain and Ezequiel Korin, of the University of Nevada, studied how self-censorship has become the internalized norm for journalists starting from 1998 under the rule of Hugo Chavez, and his ideology Chavismo. The literature review shows how self-censorship exists as a continuum, ranging from explicit restrictions in authoritarian regimes to … Continued


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Finnish journalists experience interference in many forms

A new study by Ilmari Hiltunen of Tampere University and Aleksi Suuronen of Åbo Akademi University offers new empirical evidence on external interference in contemporary journalism, using Finland as a case example. The study employed two methods: statistical analysis and a survey of 875 Finnish journalists. Age and gender were only marginal factors in the … Continued


ARTICLE: Egypt’s media missed its opportunity to reform

Egyptian media enjoyed a brief period of relative freedom after the 2011 revolution that ousted then-president Hosni Mubarak. However, journalists failed to reform their professional identities and the media system, which lead to the media’s descent into highly polarized political parallelism – and eventual regression back into the new regime’s servitude. Fatima el Issawi, of … Continued



ARTICLE: Uncivil reader comments increase support for authoritative restrictions

If a news article is followed by uncivil reader comments, other readers will become more permissive towards moderator or even police action against uncivil comments. Teresa K. Naab (University of Augsburg), Thorsten Naab (German Youth Institute) and Jonas Brandmeier (U. of Augsburg and U. of Erfurt) investigated the matter through an online experiment with 213 … Continued


ARTICLE: Autocracies are not the most dangerous places for journalists

Most journalists are killed in so-called “hybrid regimes”, Sallie Hughes, of University of Miami, and Yulia Vorobyeva, of Florida International University, found. They came to the conclusion after analyzing all journalists’ deaths on record from the past quarter century. The Committee to Protect Journalists’ database includes 1 812 journalists’ deaths from 1992-2016. Most of these … Continued


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ARTICLE: Using English greatly influenced Jakarta Post’s journalism

The language of publication affects the narratives a journalistic interpretive community develops to position itself as a news authority, a new study argues. John C. Carpenter and Sujatha Sosale, of the University of Iowa, studied anniversary edition news articles of Jakarta Post, Indonesia’s largest English-language news outlet, from its 35-year-long history. They also interviewed 13 … Continued


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ARTICLE: Challenging the political elite remains restricted in India

The relationship between the news media and individuals of the political elite in India can be conceptualized as ‘contingent heteronomy’, a new study argues. Swati Maheshwari and Colin Sparks, of Hong Kong Baptist University, studied how authoritative and populist leaders like the Gandhis and Modi manipulate media power in the country. They interviewed 40 journalists … Continued


ARTICLE: How activist citizen journalists fight state surveillance in Turkey

Since the failed coup in 2016, the Turkish state has increased surveillance of activists and journalists. How do activist citizen journalists manage their work in such an increasingly hostile environment? Bora Ataman and Barış Çoban, both of Doğuş University, interviewed 22 activist citizen journalists and representatives of alternative new media initiatives, all working in Istanbul, … Continued


Picture: No more words by Katie Tegtmeyer, license CC BY 2.0, cropped

ARTICLE: Index on Censorship advocating for freedom of expression

The magazine Index on Censorship has since 1972 provided a platform for identifying, highlighting and challenging censorship and abuses against freedom of expression. It has been one of the most important freedom of speech or anti-censorship publications in the world, a new study states. John Steel of the University of Sheffield, examined the inception and … Continued